This study provides an overview of steps taken by Regional Financing Arrangements (RFAs) to incorporate climate considerations into their activities, covering the areas of economic monitoring, lending, capacity building, and internal policies and operations.
Faced with an unprecedented global crisis, governments across the ASEAN+3 region responded quickly to the COVID-19 pandemic and deployed strict policy measures to contain the spread of the virus.
This study compares responses to the Covid-19 crisis across six regions covered by Regional Financing Arrangements (RFAs), outlining the pandemic’s economic impact, policy measures implemented by authorities to limit its economic damage, and the institutional actions by the RFAs to support members through the initial stages of the crisis.
This paper uses a factor model to explore the driving forces of institutional equity flows in ASEAN+3 region.
The Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralisation (CMIM) has been designed to provide U.S. dollar liquidity support in response to urgent short-term liquidity difficulties and/ or balance of payments difficulties experienced by any ASEAN+3 member.
Driven by strong and persistent efforts on reform and opening-up over the past 40 years (1978-2018), China has upgraded itself from a low-income to an upper-middle income country, and is poised to reach high-income status in the coming years.
The last global financial crisis made clear that the International Monetary System needs strong financial backstops to provide crisis-time liquidity to countries hit directly by large economic shocks or affected by crisis contagion.
The quantitative easing policy adopted by the advanced economies since 2009 has led to an abundance in global liquidity.
Banks continue to play a dominant role in the financial sectors of ASEAN+3 economies, and banking supervisors are building capacity to meet the challenges as the banking sectors in ASEAN+3 economies become deeper and more integrated.
Non-financial corporates (NFCs) in the ASEAN+3 region have benefited from greater bond issuances post the Global Financial Crisis but this also potentially exposes them to higher risks.